Saturday, 4 April 2020

How to mushroom cultivation

How to mushroom cultivation


Biological manipulation the Culture of mushrooms is a remarkable system that reduces the likelihood of harmful organisms and is beneficial. When it grows well, it becomes a living ecosystem suitable for mushroom growth.  Sometimes the mycelium used in composting mushrooms affects the system to a large extent and the competition for growth of other microorganisms can be minimized. Although mushroom manure is not a selective medium, other fungi can grow well before composting and hatching mushrooms, often at the expense of mushroom mycelium. It is derived entirely from white mushrooms, different production processes using and growing different mushrooms, different overall environments in which the mushroom grows.

Culture

Compost: the ingredients

Straw, wheat straw is commonly used for mushroom manure, or as a major raw material for a mushroom substrate, although other crops, such as barley, rice, and oilseeds, etc. The grass is a major component of mushroom manure in the United States. Mushroom growers have used mixed sandy straw, called compost with wheat stove, poultry manure. Complex mixtures include crushed corn shells, sour foods, and fertilizers such as urea or ammonium nitrate that provide additional carbohydrates and nitrogen.

Composting

The process of converting these fertilizers into a suitable medium for mushroom production by fermentation takes place at various stages. Initially, the material is mixed and moistened (stage 0), composting begins (stage I), pasteurized and composting completed (stage II), and finally, colonized by mushroom mycelium (stage III).

phase 0

The purpose of this phase is to fertilize, mix and wet the raw materials, during which various microorganisms break down the straw. During this process, the raw material is made by wetting well in large piles that are often transferred. This initial mixing and wetting phase occur over a period of 7 days.

Phase I

After the wetting and mixing stage, the compost is made in a long, narrow pile or windrow, in which the composting process continues. Traditionally the windows of phase I compost are made up in the open or under the protection of an open-sided shed. The phase is I process takes as a further 7 days. A compost pile usually reaches a temperature (70–75) C), which is sufficient to kill pests and pathogens in the compost or straw. Mechanical manure is replaced several times by the turner, the outer layer may not reach the middle in a few days and cannot achieve high temperatures as a result. The use of specially constructed bunkers with underfloor ventilation and sometimes with partially open top or roof underside has become widespread. The manure is put into these bunkers after a short period of time. The constant supply of air from the bottom and the removal of manure from the bunkers from the insulation provided by the walls results in 2- or 3-day intervals at temperatures of 80 or C or more, Stage I bunker manure production. Produced over two or three days compared to those produced by traditional methods.

Prewet/phase I composting methods are still being actively developed to further improve productivity and reduce odor pollution. In the initial stages of compost production, large amounts of water are used and water is collected in large containers. Water contains organic materials that ferment, especially in warm climates. It then becomes anaerobic, which causes the stink. This water, often called Y good water, must be aerated well and can then be recycled and used to make more manure. It can contain large quantities of soluble salts which may inhibit composting or mushroom mycelial growth if their concentration becomes too high.

Phase II

The process of composting is continued at this stage until it is considered suitable for the development of mushroom mycelium. More activity in one process less will be required in another, too much activity in the first phase may lead to insufficient activity in the second. The phase II process is normal to last approximately 6 days.

There is greater traditionally, control of the environment in phase II than in phase I. At the beginning of phase II, the compost temperature is allowed to settle (often referred to as leveling) so that it is more or less uniform throughout. The temperature is raised for the fermentation process to produce heat or by the introduction of steam, either when the temperature of the compost is below or below 60 ° C, the rise in temperature is prevented by the arrival of air. is. The temperature at 60 hours C is around 8-10 hours. The temperature of the conditioning process compost is reduced to 48 for C.  At 48˚C, the thermo-tolerant fungi remaining, and in particular, the fungus Scytalidium sp., grow quickly and colonize the compost. The biomass of these thermo-tolerant organisms accumulating during the conditioning process increases the suitability of the compost for mushroom growth.

At the end of conditioning, about 4 days of compost is cooled to 25 C so that it can be removed and brightened. It should be stable free of ammonia. Cooling requires large amounts of air. As long as this air is filtered to remove spores or pathogens, there is danger. can negate all careful preparation in the production process.

Compost smells

This nature and process can cause a very unpleasant odor, especially at certain stages. The older systems of prewet and phase I, with no underfloor ventilation, often resulted in anaerobic conditions, especially in the centers of the piles of compost. Increasing the pressure to reduce the odor of under-compost ventilation has also led to a large increase in the use of bunkers, which leads to a decrease in odor. Unless biofuels are used, odor pollution is not prevented by the bunker system.

Compost analysis

There is no chemical to compost mushrooms, excellent crops can be produced within a range of analysis. Manufacturers regularly analyze manure to monitor their own systems and to detect unplanned variability in the early stages. Both Phases I and Phase II manures are analyzed, for Phase I manure, pH, water and nitrogen content are obtained. Generally higher than pH 8, water around 75%, and 1.5–2.0% of fresh weight nitrogen. Phase II figures are pH 7.2, water content 68–72%, and nitrogen 2.5–2.7%. The carbon to nitrogen ratio in spawning is about 15: 1 to 18: 1. When this ratio exceeds 20: 1, the likelihood of weeds developing increases.

Mushroom compost

A selective medium is one that will grow a particular organism and no other. Mushroom manure is not selective, but it is a process of compost production for the growth of mycelium, especially the second stage process, filled with a moderate but thermo-tolerant organism that is sub-party temperature. They are in the dormant state due to spawning. This partial organic vacuum is filled with the introduction of large amounts of mushroom spawn. Phase II has not done extensive work on the range of other organisms Mushrooms will grow well in compost, but a number are known to result in accidental contamination or before spawning.  Recent work has shown that some of these molds, while not inducing symptoms of the disease on mushrooms, can have a commercially significant effect on their yields. After being colonized by a mushroom mycelium, manure is not vulnerable to being infected by other organisms.

Spawning, spawn-running, and phase III compost Spawning 

Once the compost has completed the phase II process and has been cooled to 25˚C, it is ready for spawning. At this stage, it is particularly important to be certain that the ammonia level in the air in the compost is below 5 ppm. Spawn, mushroom mycelium growing on sterilized grains, or less commonly on a grain-free medium, is thoroughly mixed into the compost by various mechanical means according to the growing system employed (6). A rate of the spawn of 7–8 liters per tonne (or 0.5% by weight) of phase II compost is normal.

Spawn-running

According to the system used in the field, spawning grain is a colony of manure from the inoculum, which is usually 13–18 days old. The temperature is 25, the high relative humidity for environmental spawn-runs, mainly to prevent composting. A concentration of 2% or more of carbon dioxide is beneficial because it is toxic to humans with large amounts of carbon dioxide. This is achieved by reassembling the air within the spawn-running room in the atmosphere, cooling the air if necessary. Spawn-running, like second-stage manure, can occur in final mounting containers or in bulk.


Phase III compost

This compost is prepared in large tunnels, which may be similar to those used for Phase II, or Phase III, which during spawn-run the temperature is controlled using filtered cold air, Which is fed through manure. In this way, a temperature of 25˚C can be maintained, and the compost is completely colonized in 16–18 days. It is then removed from the tunnel and transported in bulk to shelves or machinery where it can be placed in trays, bags or blocks.  It is very important to control oxygen levels during the spawn-running process, oxygen levels should not be less than 16% during Phase III. Hygiene, along with stage III production, can initiate pathogens, weed molds, mycelial fragments as mushrooms, and mushroom spore diseases. Phase III has its own compost production facility to eliminate the need for the farm.

Supplementation

Some systems of growing to allow this to be done with advantage, just before casing. The mechanism of this mushroom nutritional enhancement has not been fully understood, with beneficial effects on yield levels often considered to be the least cost-effective and can be up to 20%. A high protein product, which is treated with heat or formaldehyde to give a slow-release preparation, is added to the compost and spawned at the same time. This technique is not used where it is difficult to control high compost temperatures as a problem or where adequate mixing is difficult where the compost is of questionable quality.

Casing

To promote mushroom production, it is necessary to add a relatively inert surface layer of the nutrient to the relatively organic mushroom in the compost. Types of peat and chalk vary with the country, although now in many countries a mixture of well humified black peat and a by-product of the sugar beet industry called sugar beet lime is used. This mixture remains open which is effectively released into the crop, leading to greater water consumption and is used for crop control.

The casing layer is applied 4–5 cm deep. Must be an alkaline or neutral pH. In addition to stimulating fruiting, this water-holding stock material required for mushrooms and for high yields is easily contaminated. There can be severe outbreaks of pests and diseases. Treatment can be done to remove pests and pathogens. They should not be sterilized but must be heated to temperatures that are sufficient to kill harmful bacteria that are important for maintaining bacteria. Steam–air mixtures have been used for this purpose and when in equal proportions the mixture has a  maximum temperature of 80˚C. Ideally, a temperature of 60˚C should be used, and the casing heated for 30 minutes.

Spawned casing

There are two ways to use a mushroom inoculum It is the mushroom mycelium that grows on very small pieces of low nutrient medium such as mica or peat. Ordinary spawn is unsuitable for this use. It is mixed with the inoculum when it expands so it is evenly distributed on the surface and then rotavated or in rake.

A spawn-run compost that is added to the casing in the same way as for the inoculum is known as the casing. The parity and speed of the subdivision increase greatly with the use of the casing. The advantages of this technique are considerable in terms of time and duration of the crop but are serious for pathogenic and pest development, spawn-run manure is used. The success of this method depends entirely on the selection of manure, which is free from pests, pathogens, and molds.

Ruffling

This is an alternative to the use of casing spawn or caching. The casing is either deeply rotovated immediately after application and some of the colonized compost from the top layers of the compost is mixed into it, or renovation is Is done when mycelium does not develop from manure in the lower layer of the cover, it adds the mycelium of the cover. These techniques may have the effect of using a casing inoculum, they are less reliable because they are more difficult to regulate. Stopping the wrapper several days after mycelial growth may improve the first flush and help regulate its timing. This can be a very effective way of spreading the disease.


Allergies

In particular, germs, actinomycetes, are produced in large numbers during composting. What makes Firefang, 'the white increase in manure that appears at the end of Phase II, is their spectacular growth. During the preparation of compost, at any stage, many organisms are formed. Workers constantly exposed to these organisms may develop mushroom grower's lung. It is important therefore that those working with phase II and phase III compost wear an aspirated helmet.

Cropping

When the mycelium crop is induced to bear fruit. This is also done by reducing the air temperature for several days (3 to 5) while reducing the concentration of carbon dioxide in the air. Because mushrooms grow quickly. Fruiting occurs well into the break, approximately 17 days after the first cover, and continues at approximately weekly intervals. These three flushes are picked up, and then the crop is removed to make room for the next crop. The trend of taking only two flushes is increasing.

About 8-13 crops are harvested every year from home. The first two flushes are most commonly produced in mushrooms and are nearly identical in size. About half of the first two mushrooms are produced in the third flush. If flushed later, they produce less, and for this reason, are considered non-economic. Only two flushes can be taken in biological crops to prevent epidemics and to keep pests and pathogens permanently low.

From that time the wrapper is immersed in water at regular intervals, just before the mushroom is introduced during harvest. Watering is started again after the first flush is over, and most of the water between the second and third flushes is applied before the first flush, and at this stage, 25 liters per liter can be used.

Pickers go in and out of homes to harvest crops. Any insect or pathogen that crops up. Pest and pathogenesis are spread within and between crops, if pests are to be controlled within a reasonable range, and effective methods of crop termination, compost emptying and disposal are required, then pest and disease identification is important.


Pests and pathogens

There are some stages in mushroom production that are more vulnerable to the penetration of pests and pathogens. One of the stages in crop production indicates significant timing in relation to pest and pathogen risk.

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