Saturday, 21 March 2020

Amnesia and its causes

Amnesia and its causes

Amnesia is a disease that lacks the power to remember something, it happens to a few people, this disease can also be called a memory disorder.

The effects of amnesia

Is the name given by memory disorder This usually involves severe amnesia that goes beyond the everyday mistakes seen in normal people, to the extent that it can interfere with normal life activities? We are all prone to moments of forgetfulness, but most people with cognitive functioning can remember a lot about the experiences and events happening in the lives that are important to them. However, a person with amnesia may be unable to remember any condition or recent events.

Sometimes it is difficult to remember such things that they have no idea what they have done with their day so far. In severe cases, they may be unable to experience anything new, and this can be very harmful to their lives. Without an intact memory, it can become impossible to keep a job, to keep up relationships with family and friends, or even to look after oneself and maintain an independent existence. In fact, Amnesia is a very disruptive condition. However, it is also a disorder. It is clear from studies of severely forgetful patients that it is important for humans to function properly.


- Concussion, Chronic alcoholism, encephalitis, brain tumor, stroke

Transient amnesia
- Probably caused by interruptions in cerebral blood flow
-Blows to head, physical stress, cold showers, sex, drugs
-Clioquinol (anti-diarrheal drug) - no longer on the market became famous for causing transient global amnesia in some people

For many different reasons, amnesia can be divided into two main groups, organic amnesia, and psychiatric amnesia. Organic amnesias are caused by some form of physical damage inflicted on the brain. Disorders such as brain infection, stroke, head injury, and Alzheimer's disease are included. Organic amnesia is severely disabling, and irreversible in most cases because the brain lesion does not heal. Psychological factors are caused by mental factors and usually involve temporary suppression of their memories which are unacceptable to the patient at some subconscious level.

Psychotic amnesia can be counterproductive and disruptive to the patient, but there is no real brain damage, they are reversible and in most cases eventually disappear.

Organic amnesia is a more serious disease that helps to understand the nature of memory function, there are many different ways that brain damage can occur, and any of these can cause amnesia if the brain region, In particular, the cosmic lobe is involved. The main causes and origin (or causal science) of biological amnesia are listed below:

Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of amnesia. It is a degenerative brain disorder that first appears as an impairment of memory but later develops into more general dementia, affecting all aspects of cognition. AD occurs mostly in the elderly, and in fact, it is the main cause of senile dementia, eventually affecting as many as 20 percent of elderly people. It is seen in people who are at least 60 or 70 years old in rare cases. It can affect young people when it is known as pre-senile dementia. AD was first identified by Alois Alzheimer (1907), It was only later realized that the same basic degenerative disorder, with its characteristic pattern of tangled neural fibers, was also responsible for most senile dementias too. Symptoms in AD patients are usually more complex than in general dementia, and the nature of memory disorders in cases of AD is quite difficult to investigate. For this reason, they are not the most widely researched Amnesch group.

Korsakoff syndrome is a brain disease resulting from chronic alcoholism, characterized mainly by memory loss, which affects the distant past. It was first described by Korsakoff (1887) and is the most frequently read amnesia in a common form of amnesia without extensive dementia or complication of low intelligence.

Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a brain disease virus infection that can leave a patient with severe amnesia. An important feature of HSE amnesia is its relatively sudden onset, meaning that in many cases amnesic symptoms are fairly accurately known, in contrast to the very gradual onset of disorders such as Cornsoff and Alzheimer's cases.

Temporal Lobe Surgery. Brain lesions result in very small numbers due to deliberate surgical procedures, such cases are fortunately rare but have been studied extensively. The exact symptoms of amnesia are known, the location and extent of their lesions are also quite accurate. Temporal lobe amnesia for a case study of the patient HM (Scoville and Milner, 1957).

Post-ECT amnesia electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a treatment used to reduce depression, in patients who have failed to respond to any alternative form of therapy. After amnesia can start, this amnesia can persist for a long time.

ECT amnesia has been extensively studied, representing a deliberately administered severe side effect. The duration of the severity of ECT amnesia is important to evaluate the utility of treatment.

Other causes of organic amnesia. Amnesia can be caused by a condition that damages appropriate areas of the brain. There are other possible causes, for example, stroke and tumors can sometimes cause amnesia, such as head injuries, cardiac arrest. Causes of brain damage, HIV infection and degenerative conditions like Huntington's chorea and Parkinson's disease.


There is a difference between short term memory (STM) and long term memory (LTM). The main symptom of organic amnesic syndrome is long-term memory loss, which makes organic amines difficult to consolidate new information into their long-term memory stores, and they often have problems acquiring old memories from storage. Despite LTM loss, organic amnesics have short-term working memory. Most organic amnesics are capable of fairly general interactions. Certainly, their conversation, their ability to recall earlier events will be less but they are able to answer questions, they can complete sentences. That they are capable of recall that corresponds to normal short-term memory. Their problem mainly lies in consolidating their memories into a permanent form for long-term storage.

Talland (1965) conducted a study involving fewer than 29 Korsakoff patients, all of which proved to be impaired on a full battery of long-term memory tests such as story memory, wordlist recall, and picture recognition. But their score span score was similar to normal individuals, averaging about seven items. Badley and Warrington (1970) again reported normal STM duration in Coursekoff patients and, moreover, they found a general recurrence effect in the free recall trial. This finding, therefore, confirmed the apparent conservation of STM. Reviewing such studies, Pujols and Kopelman (2003) concluded that Corsakofs show general performance on tests of both oral and non-verbal STMs.

A patient is known as HM, whose amnesia was brought on by temporal lobe surgery, again has normal STM function in patients suffering from HSE amnesia, in contrast to his severe LTM impairment. Similar findings of preserved STM duration have been achieved with patients in the early stage of Alzheimer's disease, declining STM performance in Alzheimer's patients reflecting general dementia that distorts all aspects of cognitive function. Morris and Badley (1988) reported that there was no dearth of phonology and articular external in Alzheimer's patients.

LTM and STM are essentially separate memory systems because one may be unaffected while the other is unaffected. Amnesic patients also give us an indication of the duration of STM storage, which can be estimated in about seven seconds, in a recent TV documentary describing one of the most severely forgotten patients as a person with memory it was done.

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