Friday, 25 October 2019

HEALTH AND MEDICINE

HEALTH  AND  MEDICINE


RECOGNIZE THAT HEALTH  RISKS ARE  UNEVENLY DISTRIBUTED BY CLASS, GENDER, RACE,  AND COUNTRY OF RESIDENCE

Health is not only a medical issue but also a  soc biology cal one. Life expectancy and health risks are unevenly distributed in human populations. Women and men, upper and lower classes,  rich and poor countries, and privileged and disadvantaged members of racial and ethnic groups are exposed to health risks to varying degrees.

Beyond natural causes, we know of three social causes of illness and death: human environmental factors (including environmental racism ),  factors related to the public health system and the health care system in a given country, and lifestyle factors like smoking and poor diet.  The public health system-<: amp is the ed of government-run programs ensuring access to clean drinking water,  basic sewage and sanitation services, and inoculation against infectious disease-in particular is known to improve life expectancy and decrease disease rates. These social factors vary from country to country,  resulting in varying rates of life expectancy, disease, and infant mortality.

EXPLAIN  WHY  MANY  LOW-INCOME  AND  MODERATE INCOME  CANADIANS  HAVE LIMITED  ACCESS  TO  HEALTH SERVICES

Despite Canada's health care system, many lower-income Canadians have limited access to health services,  affecting life expectancy and rates of illness.  As we move down the income ladder, health deteriorates. Sociologists point to differences in stress,  early stages of development (such as poor nutrition during pregnancy), knowledge about what constitutes a healthy lifestyle,  access to health resources such as diagnostic and treatment facilities, and environmental exposure. For these reasons,  people with low incomes tend to die at a younger age than do people with high incomes. The health care system is also marked by racial and gender unequal it is.

IDENTIFY THE WAYS IN  WHICH THE SOCIAL ORGANIZATION OF HEALTH  CARE  SYSTEMS INFLUENCES PEOPLE'S HEALTH

Rich countries spend more on health care,  but it does not necessarily mean that they have good health.  For example, Americans spend more on health care than do people in any other country, but the average health status of Americans is lower than the average health status of Canadians.  The level of social inequality is higher in the  United States because of increased earnings gaps and health care providers charging higher prices than elsewhere.  In general, the higher the level of inequality in a country, the less healthy its population is.

Americans also pay more for prescription drugs, in part because the American government does not regulate pricing. Therefore, the American health care system makes it difficult for many people to receive adequate care. The Canadian health care system, on the other hand, is often referred to as socialized medicine;  the Canadian government directly controls many dimensions of the health care system, although it does not directly pay physicians. While many praise the Canadian health care system, many Canadians face long wait times for medical care.

DESCRIBE  HOW  THE  RISE  OF MEDICAL SCIENCE  IS  LINKED  TO
(1) SUCCESSFUL TREATMENTS AND  
(2) THE  WAY  DOCTORS EXCLUDED COMPETITORS  AND ESTABLISHED CONTROL OVER THEIR PROFESSION  AND  THEIR CLIENTS

Physicians have not always been at the core of the practice of medicine.  Rather,  their privileged position in the health care system has been the result of the rise of medical science and the ability of physicians for a  profession.  Their professionalization-along with identifying bacteria,  viruses, and effective procedures and vaccines-resulted in the physicians' domination in health care.  As professionals, physicians tightly regulate the training of doctors and the practice of medicine and minimize competition by laying claim to their field of expertise.  In  Canada, the professional organization of  Canadian doctors in the Canadian Medical Association (CMA); at its inception, the  CMA  set about publicizing the successes of medical science and criticizing alternative approaches,  such as midwifery. Through professionalization, physicians are granted high occupational prestige, income, and social and political power.

APPRECIATE  THE  BENEFITS  AND DANGERS  OF  ALTERNATIVE MEDICAL  TREATMENTS

Many skeptics of modern medicine turn to alternative medical treatments that rely less on high technology and drugs and are more sensitive to the need to maintain a balance between humans and their environment in pursuit of good 11-2  Visit nelson.com/student for additional study tools! hea lth.  These alternate include chiropractic services,  homeopathy, and holistic medicine.

Alternative medical treatments are often subject to debate between alternative practitioners and those in the traditional practice of medicine. Some critics argue that users of alternative medical treatments experience a placebo effect, while others suggest the risks to these alternative paths to good health are too great. Holistic practitioners, in particular, do not reject traditional scientific medicine but instead emphasize disease prevention. Patients are encouraged to play an active role in maintaining good health in contrast to assuming the sick role first discussed by  Talcott  Parsons  (Parsons, 1951  ).  Despite the debates, many people believe that some alternatives to traditional medicine will ultimately help to improve the health of people in  Canada and throughout the world.

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