Friday, 31 May 2019

Plant description of Fumariaceae

 Plant description of Fumariaceae

Fumaria Indica Linn.
Habit. Herb.
Root.  Branched taproot.
Stem. Herbaceous, aerial, erect, angular, branched, fistular, smooth and green.
Leaf. Cauline and Ramal, alternate, exstipulate, leaf-base sheathing, compound, decompound, petiolate, ultimate segments narrow, entire, acute, glabrous, unicostate, reticulate.
Inflorescence.  Leaf  opposed racemose raceme.
Flower. Bracteate, pedicellate, complete, zygomorphic, hermaphrodite, dimerous, hypogynous, purple-pink.
Calyx. Sepals  2,  polysepalous, membranous, placed anterior- posteriorly, caducous.
Corolla. Petals 4 in two whorls of 2 each, petals of the outer whorl are large and one of the outer lateral petals is spurred, petals of the inner whorl are smaller and placed anterior- posteriorly.
Androecium. Stamens in  2 groups and each group possess 1/2  +  1  +  1/2  anthers, polyandrous, filament broad at the base and narrow upward, the filament of the stamen facing the spur has a yellow-green nectary, basifixed, extrorse.
Gynoecium. Bicarpellary, syncarpous, ovary superior, unilocular, ovules many, placentation parietal, style long and stigma bifid.
Fruit.  Nut.
Floral formula. 

Classification and identification.
Class.  Dicotyledonae
1.  Venation reticulate.
2.  Flowers pentamerous.
Sub-Class.  Polypelaiae
1.  Petals free.
Series.  Thalamiflorae
1.  Flowers hypogynous and ovary superior.
Order.  Parletales
1.  Carpels united to form a unilocular ovary with parietal placentation.
Family.  Fumariaceae
1.  Herbs with alternate exstipulate leaves and latex.
2.  The calyx is caducous.
3. Flowers transversely zygomorphic and dimerous with extrorse stamens.
4.  Gynoecium  1-2  carpellary; fruits capsule or nut.

1.  Vernacular name.  Pit-papara.
2.  Economic importance.  The dried plant is used as an anthelmintic, diuretic and diaphoretic.

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