Saturday, 2 February 2019

Basic Concept of Electronic Physics

Basic Concept of Electronic Physics

System of Units 

The system of units we employ is the international system of units, the Système International des Unités, which is normally referred to as the SI standard system. This system, which is composed of the basic units meter (m), kilogram (kg), second (s), ampere (A), kelvin (K), and candela (cd), is defined in all modern physics texts and therefore will not be defined here. However, we will discuss the units in some detail as we encounter them in our subsequent analyses. The standard prefixes that are employed in SI are shown in  Note the decimal relationship between these prefixes. These standard prefixes are employed throughout our study of electric circuits.Circuit technology has changed drastically over the yars. For example, in the early 1960s the space on a circuit board occupied by the base of a single vacuum tube was about the size of a quarter (25-cent coin). Today that same space could be occupied by an Intel Pentium integrated circuit chip containing 50 million transistors. These chips are the engine for a host of electronic equipment.

Basic Quantities   

Before we begin our analysis of electric circuits, we must define terms that we will employ.However, in this chapter and throughout the book our definitions and explanations will be as simple as possible to foster an understanding of the use of the material. No attempt will be made to give complete definitions of many of the quantities because such definitions are not only unnecessary at this level but are often confusing. Although most of us have an intuitive concept of what is meant by a circuit, we will simply refer to an electric circuit as an inter connection of electrical components, each of which we will describe with a mathematical model.The most elementary quantity in an analysis of electric circuits is the electric charge. Our interest in electric charge is centered around its motion, since charge in motion results in an energy transfer. Of particular interest to us are those situations in  which the motion is confined to a definite closed path. An electric circuit is essentially a pipeline that facilitates the transfer of charge from one point to another. The time rate of change of charge constitutes an electric current. Mathematically, the relationship is expressed as where i and q represent current and charge, respectively (lowercase letters represent time dependency, and capital letters are reserved for constant quantities). The basic unit of current is the ampere (A), and 1 ampere is 1 coulomb per second.Although we know that current flow in metallic conductors results from electron motion,the conventional current flow, which is universally adopted, represents the movement of positive charges. It is important that the reader think of current flow as the movement of positive charge regardless of the physical phenomena that take place. The symbolism that will be used to represent current flow is shown in Fig. 1.2.  in Fig. 1.2a indicates that at any point in the wire shown, 2 C of charge pass from left to right each second.  in Fig. 1.2b indicates that at any point in the wire shown, 3 C of charge pass from right to left each second. Therefore, it is important to specify not only the magnitude of the variable representing the current but also its direction.

The two types of current that we encounter often in our daily lives, alternating current (ac) and direct current (dc), are shown as a function of time in Fig. 1.3. Alternating current is the common current found in every household and is used to run the refrigerator, stove, washing machine, and so on. Batteries, which are used in automobiles and flashlights, are one source of direct current. In addition to these two types of currents, which have a wide variety of uses, we can generate many other types of currents. We will examine some of these other types later in the book. In the meantime, it is interesting to note that the magnitude of currents in elements familiar to us ranges from soup to nuts, as shown in Fig. 1.4. We have indicated that charges in motion yield an energy transfer. Now we define the voltage (also called the electromotive force, or potential) between two points in a circuit as the difference in energy level of a unit charge located at each of the two points. Voltage is very similar to a gravitational force. Think about a bowling ball being dropped from a ladder into a tank of water. As soon as the ball is released, the force of gravity pulls it toward the bottom of the tank. The potential energy of the bowling ball decreases as it approaches the bottom. The gravitational force is pushing the bowling ball through the water. Think of the bowling ball as a charge and the voltage as the force pushing the charge through a circuit. Charges in motion represent a current, so the motion of the bowling ball could be thought of as a current. The water in the tank will resist the motion of the bowling ball. The motion of charges in an electric circuit will be impeded or resisted as well. We will introduce the concept of resistance in  chapter 2 to describe this effect. Work or energy, w(t) or W, is measured in joules (J); 1 joule is 1 newton meter (N?m).Hence, voltage [v(t) or V] is measured in volts (V) and 1 volt is 1 joule per coulomb; that is,1 volt=1 joule per coulomb=1 newton meter per coulomb. If a unit positive charge is moved between two points, the energy required to move it is the difference in energy level between the two points and is the defined voltage. It is extremely important that the variables used to represent voltage between two points be defined in such a way that the solution will let us interpret which point is at the higher potential with respect to the other. the variable that represents the voltage between points A and B has been defined as  and it is assumed that point A is at a higher potential than point B, as indicated by the ± and – signs associated with the variable and defined in the figure. The ± and – signs define a reference direction for  If  then the difference in potential of points A and B is 2 V and point A is at the higher potential. If a unit positive charge is moved from point A through the circuit to point B, it will give up energy to the circuit and have 2 J less energy when it reaches point B. If a unit positive charge is moved from point B to point A, extra energy must be added to the charge by the circuit, and hence the charge will end up with
2 J more energy at point A than it started with at point B. For the circuit in Fig. 1.5b,  means that the potential between points A and B is5 V and point B is at the higher potential. The voltage in Fig. 1.5b can be expressed as shown in Fig. 1.5c. In this equivalent case, the difference in potential between points A and B is and point B is at the higher potential. Note that it is important to define a variable with a reference direction so that the answer can be interpreted to give the physical condition in the circuit. We will find that it is not possible in many cases to define the variable so that the answer is positive, and we will also find that it is not necessary to do so.

As demonstrated in Figs.  .5b and c, a negative number for a given variable, for example, in Fig. 1.5b, gives exactly he same information as a positive number, that is,  in Fig. 1.5c, except that it has an opposite reference direction. Hence, when we define either current or voltage, it is absolutely necessary that we specify both magnitude and direction. Therefore, it is incomplete to say that the voltage between two points is 10 V or the current in a line is 2 A, since only the magnitude and not the direction for the variables has been defined. At this point we have presented the conventions that we employ in our discussions of current and voltage. Energy is yet another important term of basic significance. Let’s investigate the voltage–current relationships for energy transfer using the flashlight shown in Fig. 1.7. The basic elements of a flashlight are a battery, a switch, a light bulb, and connecting wires. Assuming a good battery, we all know that the light bulb will glow when the switch is closed. A current now flows in this closed circuit as charges flow out of the positive terminal o  the battery through the switch and light bulb and back into the negative terminal of the battery. The current heats up the filament in the bulb, causing it to glow and emit light. The light bulb converts electrical energy to thermal energy; as a result, charges passing through the bulb lose energy. These charges acquire energy as they pass through the battery as chemical energy is converted to electrical energy. An energy conversion process is occurring in the flashlight as the chemical energy in the battery is converted to electrical energy, which is then converted to thermal energy in the light bulb.

Let’s redraw the flashlight as shown in Fig. 1.8. There is a current I flowing in this diagram. Since we know that the light bulb uses energy, the charges coming out of the bulb have less energy than those entering the light bulb. In other words, the charges expend energy as they move through the bulb. This is indicated by the voltage shown across the bulb. The charges gain energy as they pass through the battery, which is indicated by the voltage across the battery. Note the voltage–current relationships for the battery and bulb. We know that the bulb is absorbing energy; the current is entering the positive terminal of the voltage. For the battery, the current is leaving the positive terminal, which indicates that energy is being supplied. This is further illustrated in Fig. 1.9, where a crcuit element has been extracted from a larger circuit for examination. In Fig. 1.9a, energy is being supplied to the element by hatever is attached to the terminals. Note that 2 A, that is, 2 C of charge are moving from point A to point B through the element each second. Each coulomb loses 3 J of energy as it passes through the element from point A to point B. Therefore, the element is absorbing 6 J of energy per second. Note that when the element is absorbing energy, a positive current eters the positive terminal. In Fig. 1.9b energy is being supplied by the element to whatever is connected to terminals A-B. In this case, note that when the element is supplying energy, a positive current enters the negative terminal and leaves via the positive terminal. In this convention, a negative current in one direction is equivalent to a positive current in the opposite direction, and vice versa. Similarly, a negative voltage in one direction is equivalent to a positive voltage in the opposite direction.

Circuit Elements

Thus far we have defined voltage, current, and power. In the remainder of this chapter we will define both independent and dependent current and voltage sources. Although we will assume ideal elements, we will try to indicate the shortcomings of these assumptions as weproceed with the discussion. In general, the elements we will define are terminal devices that are completely characterized by te current through the element and/or the voltage across it. These elements, which we will employ in constructing electric circuits, will be broadly classified as being either ctive or passive. The distinction between these two classifications depends essentially on one thing—whether they supply or absorb energy. As the words themselves imply, an active element is capable of generating energy and a passive element cannot generate energy. However, later we will show that some passive elements are capable of storing energy. Typical active elements are batteries and generators. The three common passive elements are resistors, capacitors, and inductors. In Chapter 2 we will launch an examination of passie elements by discussing the resistor in detail. Before proceeding with that element, we first present some very important active elements. 1. Independent voltage source 3. Two dependent voltage sources 2. Independent current source 4. Two dependent current sources INDEPENDENT SOURCES An independent voltage source is a two-terminal element that maintains a specified voltage between its terminals regardless of the current through it as shown by the v-i plot in Fig. 1.14a. The general symbol for an independent source, a circle, is also shown in Fig. 1.14a. As the figure indicates, terminal A is v(t) volts positive with respect to terminal B. In contrast to the independent voltage source, the independent current source is a two terinal element that maintains a specified current regardless of the voltage across its terminals, as illustrated by the v-i plot in Fig. 1.14b. The general symbol for an independent current source is also shown in Fig. 1.14b, where i(t) is the specified current and the arrow indicates the positive direction of current flow. 

In their normal mode of operation, independent sources supply power to the remainder of the circuit. However, they may also be connected into a circuit in such a way that they absorb power.It is important that we pause here to interject a comment concerning a shortcoming of the models. In general, mathematical models approximate actual physical systems only under a certain range of conditions. Rarely does a model accurately represent a physical system under every set of conditions. To illustrate this point, consider the model for the voltage source in  We assume that the voltage source delivers v volts regardless of what is connected to its terminals. Theoretically, we could adjust the external circuit so that an infinite amount of current would flow, and therefore the voltage source would deliver an infinite amount of power. This is, of course, physically impossible. A similar argument could be made for the independent current source. Hence, the reader is cautioned to keep in mind that models have limitations and thus are valid representations of physical systems only under certain conditions. For example, can the independent voltage source be utilized to model the battery in an automobile under all operating conditions? With the headlights on, turn on the radio. Do theheadlights dim with the radio on? They probably won’t if the sound system in your automobile was installed at the factory. If you try to crank your car with the headlights on, you will notice that the lights dim. The starter in your car draws considerable current, thus causing the voltage at the battery terminals to drop and dimming the headlights. The independent voltage source is a good model for the battery with the radio turned on; however, an improved model is needed for your battery to predict its performance under cranking conditions.

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